Recent Research Publication



Understanding COVID-19


  • Aid M, Busman-Sahay K, Vidal SJ, Maliga Z, Bondoc S, Starke C, et al. Vascular Disease and Thrombosis in SARS-CoV-2-Infected Rhesus Macaques. Cell. 2020;183(5):1354-66.e13.
  • Baum, Alina et al. “REGN-COV2 antibodies prevent and treat SARS-CoV-2 infection in rhesus macaques and hamsters.” Science (New York, N.Y.) vol. 370,6520 (2020): 1110-1115. doi:10.1126/science.abe2402
  • Chandrashekar A, Liu J, Martinot AJ, McMahan K, Mercado NB, Peter L, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection protects against rechallenge in rhesus macaques. Science. 2020;369(6505):812-7.
  • Li D, Edwards RJ, Manne K, Martinez DR, Schäfer A, Alam SM, et al. The functions of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing and infection-enhancing antibodies in vitro and in mice and nonhuman primates. bioRxiv. 2021.
  • McMahan K, Yu J, Mercado NB, Loos C, Tostanoski LH, Chandrashekar A, et al. Correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques. Nature. 2021;590(7847):630-4.
  • Mercado NB, Zahn R, Wegmann F, Loos C, Chandrashekar A, Yu J, et al. Single-shot Ad26 vaccine protects against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques. Nature. 2020;586(7830):583-8.
  • Saunders KO, Lee E, Parks R, Martinez DR, Li D, Chen H, et al. Neutralizing antibody vaccine for pandemic and pre-emergent coronaviruses. Nature. 2021.
  • Saunders, Kevin O et al. “Lipid nanoparticle encapsulated nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccines elicit polyfunctional HIV-1 antibodies comparable to proteins in nonhuman primates.” bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology 2020.12.30.424745. 31 Dec. 2020, doi:10.1101/2020.12.30.424745. Preprint.
  • Solforosi L, Kuipers H, Jongeneelen M, Rosendahl Huber SK, van der Lubbe JEM, Dekking L, et al. Immunogenicity and efficacy of one and two doses of Ad26.COV2.S COVID vaccine in adult and aged NHP. J Exp Med. 2021;218(7).
  • Yu J, Tostanoski LH, Peter L, Mercado NB, McMahan K, Mahrokhian SH, et al. DNA vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques. Science. 2020;369(6505):806-11.


Recent Scientific Journal Articles



  • Francis, George, and Qian Wang. "Secular trend in body weight of Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at Cayo Santiago." American journal of physical anthropology 174.S71 (2021).
  • Roark, Ryan S et al. “Recapitulation of HIV-1 Env-antibody coevolution in macaques leading to neutralization breadth.” Science (New York, N.Y.) vol. 371,6525 (2021): eabd2638. doi:10.1126/science.abd2638
  • Moffett, Elizabeth A. “Sexual dimorphism in the size and shape of the non-obstetric pelvis across anthropoids.” American journal of physical anthropology vol. 176,3 (2021): 402-421. doi:10.1002/ajpa.24398
  • Compo, Nicole R., Luis Mieles-Rodriguez, and Diego E. Gomez. "Fecal Bacterial Microbiota of Healthy Free-Ranging, Healthy Corralled, and Chronic Diarrheic Corralled Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)." Comparative Medicine (2021).
  • Janiak, Mareike C., et al. "Age and sex-associated variation in the multi-site microbiome of an entire social group of free-ranging rhesus macaques." Microbiome 9.1 (2021): 1-17.
  • Testard, Camille, et al. "Rhesus macaques build new social connections after a natural disaster." Current biology 31.11 (2021): 2299-2309.
  • Higham, James P., et al. "Female ornaments: is red skin color attractive to males and related to condition in rhesus macaques?." Behavioral Ecology 32.2 (2021): 236-247.
  • Arre, Alyssa M., and Daniel J. Horschler. "Swimming and diving as social play in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)." Behaviour 1.aop (2021): 1-18.
  • Colby, Abigail E., Clare M. Kimock, and James P. Higham. "Endocranial volume is variable and heritable, but not related to fitness, in a free-ranging primate." Scientific reports 11.1 (2021): 1-11.
  • Zhao, Martin Q., et al. "Conceptual Design and Prototyping for a Primate Health History Knowledge Model." Advances in Computer Vision and Computational Biology. Springer, Cham, 2021. 509-520.
  • Arre, Alyssa M., Ellen Stumph, and Laurie R. Santos. "Macaque species with varying social tolerance show no differences in understanding what other agents perceive." Animal Cognition (2021): 1-12.
  • Burke, Katharine. Affiliative Social Relations, Personality and FGCM Concentrations in Free-Ranging Juvenile Rhesus Macaques. Diss. State University of New York at Buffalo, 2021.
  • Cerrito, Paola, et al. "Weaning, parturitions and illnesses are recorded in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) dental cementum microstructure." American Journal of Primatology 83.3 (2021): e23235.
  • Preston, Alan M., Andrew J. Makowski, and Melween I. Martinez. "Vitamin D Content in Milk of the Rhesus Monkey." Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal 40.1 (2021): 50-52.
  • Horschler, Daniel J., Laurie R. Santos, and Evan L. MacLean. "How do non-human primates represent others' awareness of where objects are hidden?." Cognition 212 (2021): 104658.
  • Bettle, Rosemary, and Alexandra G. Rosati. "The evolutionary origins of natural pedagogy: Rhesus monkeys show sustained attention following nonsocial cues versus social communicative signals." Developmental science 24.1 (2021): e12987.
  • Adams, Geoffrey K., et al. "Neurons in primate prefrontal cortex signal valuable social information during natural viewing." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 376.1819 (2021): 20190666.
  • Horschler, Daniel J. The Evolutionary Origins of Representational and Motivational Hallmarks of Human Social Cognition. Diss. The University of Arizona, 2021.
  • Luevano, Logan, Chris Sutherland, and Raisa Hernández-Pacheco. "Rhesus macaques compensate for reproductive delay following ecological adversity early in life." (2021).
  • Lardenoije, Roy, et al. "Identification of a Methylomic Profile Related to Variation in Innate Fear Responses of Rhesus Macaques and its Translation to Humans." Biological Psychiatry 89.9 (2021): S305.
  • Arre, Alyssa M., and Laurie R. Santos. "Mentalizing in Nonhuman Primates." The Neural Basis of Mentalizing (2021): 131.
  • Froesel, M., Gacoin, M., Clavagnier, S., Hauser, M., Goudard, Q., & Hamed, S. B. (2021). Neural bases of audio-visual integration of socially meaningful information in macaques.
  • Decasien, Alex R., et al. "Patterns of sex-biased gene expression in rhesus macaque brains are similar to those observed in human brains." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY. Vol. 174. 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN 07030-5774, NJ USA: WILEY, 2021.
  • Sariol, Carlos A., et al. "Function is more reliable than quantity to follow up the humoral response to the Receptor Binding Domain of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein after natural infection or COVID-19 vaccination." medRxiv (2021).
  • Ebersole, Jeffrey L., et al. "Gingival tissue autophagy pathway gene expression profiles in periodontitis and aging." Journal of Periodontal Research 56.1 (2021): 34-45.
  • Ebersole, J. L., et al. "Gingival transcriptomics of follicular T cell footprints in progressing periodontitis." Clinical & Experimental Immunology 204.3 (2021): 373-395.



  • Milich, Krista M., et al. "Age negatively impacts reproduction in high-ranking male rhesus macaques on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico." Scientific reports 10.1 (2020): 1-10.
  • Chiou, Kenneth L., et al. "Rhesus macaques as a tractable physiological model of human ageing." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 375.1811 (2020): 20190612.
  • Dunayer, Erica S. Infant Handling, Supply and Demand, and Grooming Time Matching in Cayo Santiago Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta). Diss. State University of New York at Buffalo, 2020.
  • Hardin, Anna M. "Genetic correlations in the rhesus macaque dentition." Journal of Human Evolution 148 (2020): 102873.
  • Arre, Alyssa M., Chelsey S. Clark, and Laurie R. Santos. "Do young rhesus macaques know what others see?: A comparative developmental perspective." American journal of primatology 82.11 (2020): e23054.
  • Hart, Emilee N., et al. "Female fertility rates between subspecies of captive rhesus macaques." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY. Vol. 171. 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN 07030-5774, NJ USA: WILEY, 2020.
  • Bravo-Rivera, Hector, et al. "Innate fear responses are reflected in the blood epigenome of rhesus macaques." bioRxiv (2020).
  • Milich, Krista M., et al. "Variation in male reproductive success on Cayo Santiago: evidence for reproductive senescence in rhesus macaques." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY. Vol. 171. 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN 07030-5774, NJ USA: WILEY, 2020.
  • Hardin, Anna M. "Canine size is genetically correlated with body size in the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY. Vol. 171. 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN 07030-5774, NJ USA: WILEY, 2020.
  • Janiak, Mareike C., et al. "Age-associated changes in the microbiome of rhesus macaques on Cayo Santiago." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY. Vol. 171. 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN 07030-5774, NJ USA: WILEY, 2020.
  • Beck, Robert T., Gabriele R. Lubach, and Christopher L. Coe. "Feasibility of successfully breeding rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to obtain healthy infants year‐round." American journal of primatology 82.1 (2020): e23085.
  • Lee, D. Susie, et al. "Higher early life mortality with lower infant body mass in a free‐ranging primate." Journal of Animal Ecology 89.10 (2020): 2300-2310.
  • Morcillo, Dana O., et al. "Hurricane-induced demographic changes in a non-human primate population." Royal Society open science 7.8 (2020): 200173.
  • Wang, Arick, et al. "Early developmental changes in visual social engagement in infant rhesus monkeys." Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience 43 (2020): 100778.
  • Cunningham, Andreana S. "Growth and Sexual Dimorphism of the Hyoid Body in Macaca mulatta." International Journal of Primatology 41.3 (2020): 538-557.
  • Machanda, Zarin P., and Alexandra G. Rosati. "Shifting sociality during primate ageing." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 375.1811 (2020): 20190620.
  • Epelbaum, Jacques, and Jérémy Terrien. "Mini-review: Aging of the neuroendocrine system: Insights from nonhuman primate models." Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 100 (2020): 109854.
  • Serrano-Collazo, Crisanta, et al. "Effective control of early Zika virus replication by Dengue immunity is associated to the length of time between the 2 infections but not mediated by antibodies." PLoS neglected tropical diseases 14.5 (2020): e0008285.
  • Hernández, Javier Omar Rivera. Hepatic and Systemic Effects of Angiotensin II Type 1 (AT1) Receptor Inhibition on the Oxidative and Inflammatory Response in Healthy Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) During Aging. Diss. University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences (Puerto Rico), 2020.
  • Ebersole, Jeffrey, et al. "Oral Microbiome and Gingival Tissue Apoptosis and Autophagy Transcriptomics." Frontiers in immunology 11 (2020): 2516.
  • Serrano, Crisanta. Impact of time interval between primary Dengue infection and subsequent Zika exposure in Zika pathogenesis using a non-human primate model. Diss. University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences (Puerto Rico), 2020.



  • Ebersole, Jeffrey L., et al. "Periodontal disease susceptible matrilines in the Cayo Santiago Macaca mulatta macaques." Journal of periodontal research 54.2 (2019): 134-142.
  • Benderlioglu, Zeynep, and Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg. "Is There a Link Between Matriline Dominance Rank and Linear Enamel Hypoplasia? An Assessment of Defect Prevalence and Count in Cayo Santiago Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)." International Journal of Primatology 40.2 (2019): 263-275.
  • Larson, Sam M., et al. "Dynamic social networks in the wake of environmental disaster: Hurricane Maria and the Cayo Santiago macaques." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY. Vol. 168. 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN 07030-5774, NJ USA: WILEY, 2019.
  • Lee, D. Susie, Angelina V. Ruiz-Lambides, and James P. Higham. "Higher offspring mortality with short interbirth intervals in free-ranging rhesus macaques." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116.13 (2019): 6057-6062.
  • O'Hearn, W. "Direct and generalized reciprocity in the cooperative exchanges of free living Rhesus macaques on Cayo Santiago." (2019).
  • Kohn, Luci Ann P., and Gabriele R. Lubach. "Postcranial Skeletal Differences in Free‐Range and Captive‐Born Primates." The Anatomical Record 302.5 (2019): 761-774.
  • Rosenfield, Kevin A., et al. "Experimental evidence that female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) perceive variation in male facial masculinity." Royal Society open science 6.1 (2019): 181415.
  • Bethell, Emily J., et al. "Toward a Standardized Test of Fearful Temperament in Primates: A Sensitive Alternative to the Human Intruder Task for Laboratory-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)." Frontiers in psychology 10 (2019): 1051.
  • Dunayer, Erica S., et al. "Time matching between grooming partners: Do methodological distinctions between short versus long‐term reciprocation matter?." American journal of primatology 81.4 (2019): e22968.
  • Horschler, Daniel J., Laurie R. Santos, and Evan L. MacLean. "Do non-human primates really represent others’ ignorance? A test of the awareness relations hypothesis." Cognition 190 (2019): 72-80.
  • Bettle, Rosemary, and Alexandra G. Rosati. "Flexible gaze-following in rhesus monkeys." Animal cognition (2019): 1-14.
  • De Petrillo, Francesca, and Alexandra G. Rosati. "Rhesus macaques use probabilities to predict future events." Evolution and Human Behavior (2019).
  • Larson, Sam. "The Affiliative Social Relations Of Free-Ranging Rhesus Macaques In The Context Of Instability." (2019).
  • Ebersole, Jeffrey L., et al. "Comparative analysis of expression of microbial sensing molecules in mucosal tissues with periodontal disease." Immunobiology 224.2 (2019): 196-206.